What are learning disabilities?
For school purposes in the United States, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines learning disability in these ways:
(i) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
(ii) Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage (Section 300.7(c)(10) of 34 CFR Parts 300 and 303)
In other words, students with learning disabilities (LD) have difficulty acquiring basic skills or academic content. Learning disabilities are characterized by intra-individual differences, usually in the form of a discrepancy between a student’s ability and his or her achievement in areas such as reading, writing, mathematics, or speaking. Although they cannot be the primary problem, some students with LD also have difficulties with social relations. Intra-individual differences are differences within a student across academic areas. For example, a student with a LD may be quite successful in math computation and listening comprehension but may read poorly. Other students with LD may read and speak well but have difficulty expressing their thoughts in writing.
It is important to understand that learning disabilities are defined differently by different groups. The concept of “learning disability” has one meaning for the general public, but a different meaning for professionals. Furthermore, different professional groups use different definitions of learning disability. The definition used here is based on the US federal government’s laws and regulations. The World Health Organization and the US American Psychiatric Association use different definitions.